Folia Philosophica <div class="WordSection1"> <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Folia Philosophica</em> publishes <strong>research articles</strong> exploring the central areas of philosophy: ontology, epistemology, ethics, anthropology, social philosophy, philosophy of religion, or the history of philosophy. Its <strong>review</strong> section offers readers insights into the evolution of philosophical thought as reflected in the recent publications. As a journal whose legacy is over three decades old, Folia Philosphica welcomes a wide range of submissions in English, German and in Polish.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">We are open to reflection in all areas of philosophy. <em>Folia Philosophica</em> publishes high-quality contributions by international scholars. With the local audience in mind, it also offers <strong>translations</strong> of philosophical texts – both by classical philosophers and by prominent representatives of contemporary philosophy - to international audiences. It welcomes articles by contributors from all over the world, aiming to go beyond the national scope and join the international discussion on current philosophical issues, which brings together a variety of perspectives and voices.</p> <p style="font-weight: 400;">The journal does not charge any fees for publishing articles and is available free of charge in the Open Access Gold formula.</p> </div> Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego | University of Silesia Press en-US Folia Philosophica 0208-6336 <div>The submission of the text to the <em>Folia Philosophica</em> Editorial Board is tantamount to the concession to make the text available to the public under the provisions of the <a tabindex="-1" title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noreferrer noopener"> <strong>Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0)</strong></a> Authors retain the copyright and publishing rights to their text. The Authors have the right to deposit published version of their work in services and repositories of their choice.&nbsp;</div> New Critical Philosophy as Understood by Stanisław Kobyłecki and Marian Massonius <p>The issue of neo-kantism and modern criticism is one of the problems discussed by representatives of various philosophical currents in Poland in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. For neo-kantism — with its heteronomy and problems with the delineation of individual positions in it — and, in particular, a strongly undefined modern criticism, practically showing no ideological unity, led to the view that everyone who felt obliged to stick to a scientific discipline, i.e. proclaimed the need to make philosophy more scientific, or only made a superficial accession or acceptance of a general idea, or only some element of it, could find a place within them. It is interesting that even today it is not easy to deal with this problem. It seems that, on the one hand, neo-kantism and modern criticism — primarily in Polish philosophy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries — can be almost treated synonymously; on the other hand, they are, from one point of view, mutually exclusive options, and, from another, complementary in nature (they are coming closer then, as is claimed, to a positivist criticism).</p> <p>The article attempts to present, mainly on the basis of two representatives of philosophical thought of that time, viz. Stanisław Kobyłecki and Marian Massonius, the similarities and differences that emerged in the understanding of modern criticism in connection with the publication entitled <em>Filozofia nowokrytyczna </em>[Modern Crititical Philosophy], in which “the turn to Kant” was even put into the formula of “modern criticism”.</p> Barbara Szotek ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 44 2 1 19 10.31261/fp.11359 The Declared Scientific Ethos of Polish Universities <p>The principles that govern the functioning of science and visions of the ethics of scientific research are changing. Many researchers who are examining these changes observe a shift from the academic ethos to the industrial — or “corporate” — ethos. Under the new law on higher education and science, which was passed by the Polish Parliament in 2018, new regulations to the Polish state university system have come into effect. The basic aim of my article has been to examine the scientific ethos in Poland. I based my research on the new statutes adopted by university senates, in which I focused on the value statements and declarations that express the beliefs of university authorities about the most important and desirable model of science. I compared two groups of universities, those which have obtained the status of research universities and colleges from the Upper Silesian Metropolis. My goal was to answer the following questions: 1. What values create the declared ethos of science? 2. What is their hierarchy? 3. To what extent is the ethos of both groups of universities similar? 4. Has the scientific ethos present in the new statutes changed in relation to what was declared earlier? In order to answer these questions, I have applied the technique of document content analysis. My research shows that 1. The ethos of science is changing; 2. The set of declared values in the material under scrutiny is rich and varied.</p> Tomasz Czakon ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-13 2021-05-13 44 2 1 21 10.31261/fp.11324 PolskiMeditation in Philosophical Practice as “Live Metaphysics” (Meditation Practices of the Stoic School) <p>This article argues that if contemporary philosophical counseling wishes to perpetuate the spirit of ancient philosophy, it must also incorporate metaphysics. This kind of incorporation means, among other things, regarding as essential the implementation of the meditation practices of certain historical schools of philosophy. Meditation was an inherent feature not only of Eastern schools of thought, but also within Western philosophy (as the author demonstrates through the example of Marcus Aurelius’ <em>Meditations</em>). These practices lead to a psychophysical state, known as ataraxia, which causes the perception of reality to undergo a radical change, including occasional “altered states of consciousness,” as they are known by psychology. The author calls such practices “live metaphysics.” He also maintains that, without the inclusion of such metaphysical practices, philosophical counselling and coaching lose their eudemonic character and become a means of hedonistic gratification in the service of the liberated ego of the contemporary man.</p> Marcin Piotr Fabjański ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-18 2021-05-18 44 2 1 9 10.31261/fp.10033 Anthony Ashley Cooper Shaftesbury: Three Stoic Exercises <p><em>Three Stoic Exercises </em>is the first Polish translation, done by Adam Grzeliński, of three excerpts from Shaftesbury’s notebooks: <em>Character and Conduct</em>, <em>Attention and Relaxation</em>, and <em>Improvement </em>being part included in the collection entitled <em>Askêmata</em>. These texts prove that these notebooks not only complement the contents of <em>Characteristics of Men, Manners, Opinions, and Times</em>, the three-volume set which made Shaftesbury a famous and influential philosopher, but they are to be seen mainly as a kind of moral exercises and soliloquies in which Shaftesbury comments the works of the stoics: Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius.</p> Adam Grzeliński, tłum. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 44 2 1 20 10.31261/fp.10424