No Limits <p>“No Limits” is a new popular science journal at the University of Silesia in Katowice. We use an attractive format to present interesting, innovative, and important scientific research which is conducted at our university, or in cooperation with the University of Silesia.</p> <p>The semi-annual journal is addressed to a wide audience, especially to those who are interested in discoveries in the world of science, innovative solutions, technology, as well as new materials and technologies. The first issue was dedicated to the subjects related to climate change.</p> Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach | University of Silesia in Katowice en-US No Limits 2719-2830 <p><strong>The Copyright Holders of the submitted text are the Author and the Publisher. The Reader is granted the right to use the pdf documents under the provisions of the Creative Commons 4.0 International License: Attribution-Share-Alike (CC BY SA). The user can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose.</strong></p> <ol> <li class="show">License</li> </ol> <p>The University of Silesia Press provides immediate open access to journal’s content under the Creative Commons BY 4.0 license (<a href=""></a>). Authors who publish with this journal retain all copyrights and agree to the terms of the above-mentioned CC BY 4.0 license.</p> <ol start="2"> <li class="show">Author’s Warranties</li> </ol> <p>The author warrants that the article is original, written by stated author/s, has not been published before, contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe the rights of others, is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author and free of any third party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained by the author/s.</p> <p>If the article contains illustrative material (drawings, photos, graphs, maps), the author declares that the said works are of his authorship, they do not infringe the rights of the third party (including personal rights, i.a. the authorization to reproduce physical likeness) and the author holds exclusive proprietary copyrights. The author publishes the above works as part of the article under the licence "Creative Commons Attribution - By the same conditions 4.0 International".</p> <p>ATTENTION! When the legal situation of the illustrative material has not been determined and the necessary consent has not been granted by the proprietary copyrights holders, the submitted material will not be accepted for editorial process. At the same time the author takes full responsibility for providing false data (this also regards covering the costs incurred by the University of Silesia Press and financial claims of the third party).</p> <ol start="3"> <li class="show">User Rights</li> </ol> <p>Under the Creative Commons Attribution license, the users are free to share (copy, distribute and transmit the contribution) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material) the article for any purpose, provided they attribute the contribution in the manner specified by the author or licensor.</p> <ol start="4"> <li class="show">Co-Authorship</li> </ol> <p>If the article was prepared jointly with other authors, the signatory of this form warrants that he/she has been authorized by all co-authors to sign this agreement on their behalf, and agrees to inform his/her co-authors of the terms of this agreement.</p> <p>I hereby declare that in the event of withdrawal of the text from the publishing process or submitting it to another publisher without agreement from the editorial office, I agree to cover all costs incurred by the University of Silesia in connection with my application.</p> Good Bye, Coal <p>The fossil fuel extraction era in the Upper Silesia and Zagłębie region is coming to an end before our very eyes. However, coal is here to stay, as evidenced by heavy metal laden heaps and land subsidence. Research shows how large a role culture can play in taming decarbonisation. The researchers prove that we are in need of good transformation narratives, which could introduce us to the transition process from coal fueled electricity to nuclear energy. <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Marta Tomczok Tomasz Grząślewicz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-03 2023-11-03 2(8) 4 5 Lead runs through our veins <p>It’s 1974. Thousands of records laid out on the floor of doctor Jolanta Wadowska-Król’s flat form a grim labyrinth. These are the medical records of children living near the Non-Ferrous Smelting Plant ‘Szopienice’ in Katowice. Many of them have blood lead levels well above the acceptable limit. The diagnosis is surprising — it’s lead poisoning, an occupational disease affecting workers in daily contact with toxic metals, causing damage to the haematopoietic and nervous systems, among other things. And so, the fight for the health and lives of the doctor’s young patients begins.</p> Lucyna Sadzikowska Małgorzata Kłoskowicz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-03 2023-11-03 2(8) 6 9 Second life of waste heaps <p>One of the most recognisable elements of the Upper Silesian landscape is the post-mining waste heaps — remnants of coal mining — which are connected with the region’s industrial heritage that the community struggles with to this day. These sites, known to contain a mixture of toxic substances (often difficult to identify) and prone to fire, are sometimes also extremely biodiverse. Given sufficient time, the mining waste storage sites that scare away any potential passersby can turn into the so-called green islands with a spontaneously developing wildlife.</p> Justyna Ciesielczuk Monika Fabiańska Weronika Cygan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-03 2023-11-03 2(8) 10 13 GMO — A New Hope or The Road to Perdition <p>The use of genetically modified micro-organisms (GMMs), as well as the chemical compounds they produce, has a universal tacit approval. Whereas, the production of food using genetically modified organisms (GMOs), mainly plants, is vehemently opposed. Some argue that GMO foods are harmful and should not be consumed, while others believe that they can do a lot of good, e.g. reduce hunger in countries facing food shortages and improve the living standards in developing countries. What are the actual benefits of GMOs – and do they carry any risks?</p> Barbara Wójcikowska Katarzyna Suchańska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-03 2023-11-03 2(8) 14 15 Cryptocurrencies — Virtual Gold <p><em>Cryptocurrency</em> is a term not coincidentally made up of two elements: the prefix <em>crypto-</em> and the noun <em>currency</em>. It is basically a means of settlement, not stored, however, in the computer system of any bank, but rather maintained by thousands of computers scattered around the world. It is built on a technology called blockchain. How are cryptocurrencies created? Can something that does not physically exist have value? It is still difficult to say if cryptocurrencies have more advantages or disadvantages.</p> Przemysław Kudłacik Agnieszka Sikora ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-03 2023-11-03 2(8) 16 17 The Union of Art and Information Technology <p>It is now difficult to imagine the world of art without the presence of elements of information technology. Just as people used to primarily paint with a brush on a canvas or sculpt in stone or wood in the past, nowadays many works are created with a greater or lesser contribution of digital technologies. AI (Artificial Intelligence), which is now able to generate artworks using algorithms and neural networks, AR (Augmented Reality), and VR (Virtual Reality) technologies are now increasingly entering the domain of art.</p> Krzysztof Gdawiec Adam Bała ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-03 2023-11-03 2(8) 18 21 Belfast — Reinterpreting the City <p>On 10 April 1998 the governments of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland adopted the <em>Good Friday Agreement</em>. The document, subsequently countersigned by Northern Ireland’s main political parties, symbolically ended 30 years of bloody conflict in the region. While everything looked great on paper, the reality proved more complicated. The transformation of Belfast and Northern Ireland turned out to be a long process.</p> Leszek Drong Tomasz Płosa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-03 2023-11-03 2(8) 22 25 Digitisation and Restoration preserve cinematographic heritage <p>The Polish National Film Archive boasts one of the largest collections of films in Europe. It contains 2,000 Polish feature films (from 1908 to the present day), 160 pre-war films, 100,000 documentaries and short films, and over 2,000 animated films. Most were recorded on film stock, a perishable and degradable material. The only way to prevent the loss of film heritage and to preserve it for posterity is digitisation and comprehensive digital restoration. Not only can the contemporary viewer admire the cinema that captivated previous generations, but also follow the development of Polish cinematography.</p> Jerzy Łukaszewicz Maria Sztuka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-03 2023-11-03 2(8) 26 29 Transformations of Masculinity in the 20th Century <p>There has never been a single and unified masculine ideal that has persisted over the centuries. On the contrary, while looking from a historical perspective, it can be concluded that masculinity has always been a category prone to transformation. It has been a reflection of economic, political, social, and cultural changes, which have undergone periodic phases of collapse and transformation. However, the postmodern definition crisis, which dates back to the last century and continues to this day, seems to have resounded the loudest. Ever since researchers began to study masculinity, it has become increasingly clear that masculinity, contrary to popular opinion, is not a monolithic construct.</p> Aleksandra Dębińska ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2023-11-03 2023-11-03 2(8) 30 31